Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis
Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis is a tactical shooter and battlefield simulatorvideo game developed by Bohemia Interactive Studio and published by Codemasters in In , Bohemia Interactive re-released the game under the title ARMA: Cold War Assault. The game uses objectives and weaponry appropriate to the Cold War, the period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union that lasted from to
The game is considered a spiritual successor to Gravon: Real Virtuality (). The game uses the same engine, Real Virtuality, as the military simulator VBS1. It was released on June 22, in Europe and August 30, in North America. Set on a group of fictitious islands in , Operation Flashpoint puts the player on one of three sides in a hypothetical conflict between American and Soviet forces. The Resistance is the third playable faction. Two expansion packs were released; Gold Upgrade, which included Red Hammer, a campaign from the Soviet perspective, and Resistance, which introduced various new features and improved graphics and sound effects. An Xbox port was released in under the title Operation Flashpoint: Elite. Operation Flashpoint was praised for its attention to realistic combat.
In , Bohemia Interactive released a sequel called ARMA: Armed Assault. It is based on an improved Flashpoint engine and it was released under the title ArmA Combat Operations in the United States on May 4, ArmA: Armed Assault's successor ARMA 2 was released on June 19,
A game titled Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising was released in October by Codemasters. This game was not developed by Bohemia Interactive, who had reserved the exclusive right to develop sequels to the original Operation Flashpoint, and released a statement that "it is not right to promote this game as the 'official sequel'."
In June , Bohemia Interactive re-released Operation Flashpoint as ARMA: Cold War Assault, as Codemasters retain the rights to the 'Operation Flashpoint' trademark. Owners of Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis and the Game of the Year Edition may download and install the latest patch for free, and the game is available for purchase via a number of digital distribution channels. This release does not include the Red Hammer expansion, which was developed by Codemasters and not Bohemia Interactive Studio. As of June 23, the current version of the game is 
Operation Flashpoint's gameplay varies significantly depending on the player's role, but the game is best described as a tactical shooter with significant vehicle elements and minor real-time tactics elements. OFP's gameplay is largely team-oriented and the player spends much of the game with a squad of up to 11 AI-controlled members, either as a member of the squad or as its leader. On-foot gameplay and the vehicle elements are blended seamlessly and the player can get into any available vehicle at any time, orders and mission conditions permitting. Whether on foot or in a vehicle the player can view the action from both first- and third-person views, as well as an additional "command view" available to squad leaders which gives the player a limited bird's-eye view of the surrounding area.
At the start of each mission the player is presented with a briefing explaining the situation, describing the player's goals in the mission and, often, providing further information in the form of notes. Once in-game the player is provided with a map, compass, watch, and a notebook. Depending on the mission the player may be required to participate in and complete a variety of tasks, from simply driving a truck or guarding bases to attacking or defending various objectives, patrols, reconnaissance and sabotage behind enemy lines, air support, or any combination of these and more.
When the player is given command of a squad of NPCs, the game becomes more strategy-oriented. As a leader the player is responsible for guiding the squad to its objectives and is able to issue a wide variety of orders to men under their command, such as movement orders, designation of priority targets, formation orders and various other tactical instructions governing how they should behave such as holding fire or attacking only select targets.
Operation Flashpoint features a wide variety of Cold War-era equipment, all of which can be used by the player, depending on availability in any given mission. Available firearms range from standard-issue military assault rifles such as the M16A2 and the AK, machine guns, and more specialized weaponry such as sniper rifles and suppressed submachine guns, all of which have iron sights or telescopic sights that the player can use to aim.
Available vehicles include wheeled vehicles (such as jeeps and trucks), patrol boats, tanks and APCs, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft such as the A Thunderbolt II. If a vehicle is accessible to the player, they can take the position of driver or simply ride in the vehicle as a passenger. Many vehicles, such as tanks, require a crew of at least a driver and a gunner to be used effectively. All vehicles have accurately modeled 3D interiors.
Operation Flashpoint pioneered the use of realistic vehicle and aircraft combat in FPS games. While Operation Flashpoint does not provide the same level of vehicle realism as a dedicated simulator like Steel Beasts or Falcon , it is nevertheless notable because it does not only simulate aircraft, tank and infantry combat with consistently high levels of realism, but also accurately simulates the complex relationships between these elements in warfare.
After the termination of Gamespy master server (July ), searching servers for multiplayer is possible through the application "OFP-Monitor" (ArmA:CWA Server monitoring tool from Poweruser).
With its built-in mission editing features, the game engine does not limit the gameplay to any specific mode. Instead, the choice of mission type is left to the mission author. Most commonly implemented game modes include:
- Deathmatch – In which the players spawn in an arena and fight each other with a variety of weapons and vehicles found in the map, the player with the most kills at the end of the round wins.
- Team Deathmatch – A game mode similar to deathmatch, in team deathmatch players join one of two teams and must kill players of the opposing team to earn points.
- Capture The Flag – In Capture The Flag, players must steal the flag and take it to a designated location, while preventing opposing players from doing the same. This mode may be team based, or free for all with no alliances.
- Cooperative – In which one or more teams of allied human players work cooperatively to accomplish a variety of objectives.
Operation Flashpoint also includes an in-game mission editor which can be used to create anything from single missions to entire campaigns.
Unlike most first-person shooters, in which a dozen or more separate, self-contained 'maps' typically make up the game world, the game world in Operation Flashpoint consists of large fictitious islands. Each island is at least a dozen square kilometres ( square miles) in size, and is surrounded on all sides by ocean. This is essentially the same concept of using self-contained maps, but on a much larger scale and using oceans, rather than what should be surmountable barriers (such as walls or cliffs), to stop the player from leaving the area.
The game takes place on three different islands: The island-states of Everon and Malden (the latter is a home of American military forces), and later in the game, on the barren Russian island of Kolgujev which is the staging point for the renegade Soviet forces invading Everon and Malden.
The year is , and Mikhail Gorbachev has come to power in the Soviet Union. While his Glasnost and Perestroika reforms are welcomed by western governments, there are communist hardliners in his own government that are unsympathetic to his cause and are ready to do anything to stop these reforms.
Aleksei Guba, a renegade general, is determined to bring down Gorbachev and make himself the next leader of the Soviet Union. Guba commands an army on the island base of Kolgujev. Guba invades nearby Everon, crushing the militia force there, and secretly plans to take the war to the Americans.
The NATO presence on Malden, under the command of the American Colonel Blake, moves in to investigate the loss of contact with Everon, and reports an invasion by an 'unknown hostile force'. When a helicopter of troops sent to investigate fails to return, Blake orders a full-scale invasion of Everon, not knowing about the Soviets. Most of the soldiers sent to Everon are recruits who are about to be sent home after finishing their tour of duty.
Though the NATO forces manage to take control of a portion of the island, the Soviets eventually counterattack, causing heavy losses to the American forces and forcing their hasty retreat back to U.S.-controlled Malden. The Soviets do not only reclaim Everon, but push onto Malden as well, which brings the Americans on the edge of defeat. Blake receives an ultimatum from Guba, but at the same time he is informed by Washington that a full carrier group is en route at flank speed to lend assistance. Time is of the essence as both Washington and Moscow deny that hostilities have broken out on the islands to prevent panic, but at the same time the USSR begins a full-scale mobilization, allegedly as a military exercise. General Guba is in possession of a nuclear-tipped SCUD aimed at Malden and the American forces must prevent the missile launch from happening to avoid the beginning of World War III.
During the campaign, players take the roles of one of four characters:
- David Armstrong – A determined corporal in the United States Army who is training on Malden when the fighting breaks out, he loses his squad on Everon after a botched retreat attempt. Due to his performance, Blake promotes him to Lieutenant and assigns him to frontline combat, spearheading NATO advances.
- Robert Hammer – An inexperienced tank commander who has been called into service due to a shortage of tank crews. He is eventually promoted to platoon commander.
- Sam Nichols – A Black Hawk pilot who is called on to fly helicopter gunships, and eventually an A Thunderbolt.
- James Gastovski – A retired U.S. Army Special Forces officer, Gastovski is called out of retirement to carry out sabotage and scouting missions. He is also a huge fan of the James Bond movies.
In the United States, Operation Flashpoint sold , copies and earned $ million by August , after its release in June It was the country's 90th best-selling computer game during this period. It received a "Silver" sales award from the Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association (ELSPA), indicating sales of at least , copies in the United Kingdom. Sales of Operation Flashpoint surpassed 1 million units by , and ultimately topped 2 million copies by 
John Leaver reviewed the PC version of the game for Next Generation, rating it four stars out of five, and stated that "This is an extremely realistic sim. Its only major drawback is that the realism sometimes takes precedence over playability, and at times it will bore less-than-hardcore war gamers."
Operation Flashpoint has won critical acclaim for its realism of simulating military conflict situations on PC, even to the extent where the game's technology has been adapted for real soldiers to use as the special combat training application VBS1.
Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis won Computer Gaming World's "Game of the Year" award. The editors wrote, "Little did we know that somewhere in what used to be Czechoslovakia, Bohemia Interactive was quietly building one of the most revolutionary games that we would ever play." The editors of Computer Games Magazine named Cold War Crisis the best action game of , and wrote, "It doesn't play quite like any other action game out there, and that's a good thing—especially in a game that's this much fun." The magazine also presented Cold War Crisis with its "Best AI" award.
Expansions and sequels
Main articles: Operation Flashpoint: Resistance and Operation Flashpoint: Red Hammer
Resistance, an expansion, featured updated graphics, sounds, and multiplayer mechanics. The storyline takes place three years before the events of the main storyline. The player takes on the role of an ex-Special Operations soldier, Victor Troska, who has returned to his homeland of Nogova after years in exile serving with British Special Forces. During the first introductory mission to the campaign, the island is invaded by the Soviet Union after some members of the socialist party betray the country and invite Soviet forces to overthrow the government. Troska is approached by Nogovans who are resisting the Soviet occupation and asked to join them. Initially, Troska refuses to have any part in the fighting and rebukes them because he wants to put the combat behind and also believes that any resistance will take many of the inexperienced soldiers' lives. Later he changes his mind when a wounded guerrilla fighter being pursued by Soviet soldiers takes refuge in Troska's shed. He has no other choice than to fight off the Soviets and join the resistance.
When Victor joins the resistance he is immediately forced to take command and fight the Soviets who attack their base and kill the resistance commander. Then he leads his units to assault some Soviet bases to collect some weapons, ammunition and tanks as the resistance forces have only a limited supply of weapons. Besides the fighting this becomes a very important objective through all campaign. After some initial successful actions more people begin to join the resistance, making it stronger. The resistance must finally overcome the threat of Soviet bombing of Nogova. The basic plot of Resistance is probably based on events in Czechoslovakia.
An expansion Red Hammer, which was developed by Codemasters, depicts the same conflict as OFP: Cold War Crisis. The expansion adds new vehicles to the game, along with a new campaign putting the player in the role of a Soviet soldier, Dmitriy Lukin, rather than an American soldier. During the course of the campaign, Lukin, who is one of the few soldiers stationed on Kolgujev with previous combat experience, switches from his steadfast fight against American forces on Everon and Malden to joining the resistance fighters on Everon battling his own countrymen in order to pave the way for an American take-over of the island. He is also tasked to kill or capture the last officers still loyal to general Guba. The save game system was altered significantly, making reverting to a previous level impossible. Lukin had been a Spetsnaz in Afghanistan, but was demoted to private for not obeying orders and shipped to the regular army for insubordination. During the course of the Red Hammer campaign, he is put in command of a squad, promoted to Sergeant, drives tanks, flies helicopters and eventually gets promoted to Lieutenant and assigned back to Spetsnaz. He is sent to kill one of the resistance leaders and surprisingly discovers that he is a Spetsnaz deserter who did not want to serve under General Guba any more, claiming that Guba is a rogue general pursuing his own agenda independently from the Soviet Union. Lukin then switches sides and joins the resistance, ending the mission by arresting the remaining commanders still loyal to Guba.
A sequel, Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising, was released by Codemasters on October 6,  Independently, game developer Bohemia Interactive released its own spiritual sequel, ARMA: Armed Assault.
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- ^"ELSPA Sales Awards: Silver". Entertainment and Leisure Software Publishers Association. Archived from the original on February 21,
- ^Caoili, Eric (November 26, ). "ELSPA: Wii Fit, Mario Kart Reach Diamond Status In UK". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on September 18,
- ^"ARMA II Operation Arrowhead" (Press release). Gamesindustry.biz. June 25, Archived from the original on October 8,
- ^"Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis for PC". GameRankings. CBS Interactive. Retrieved August 30,
- ^"Operation Flashpoint: Elite for Xbox". GameRankings. CBS Interactive. Retrieved November 12,
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Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis - PC
Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis is a first- and third-person tactical combat game set in detailing a fictional conflict between NATO and the Soviet Union. As a soldier fighting against the Soviets, you're on the frontline of the conflict and charged with a number of missions, including sabotage, recon, combat, assassination, and fending off enemy attacks. The game is very successful in its approach, but stumbles when it forces you to play vehicle-only missions where you control a tank, an attack helicopter, or an A tank killer.
Over the course of the game's 50 single-player missions and campaigns, you'll assume several combat roles, running the gamut from a grunt armed with an M to a tank commander commanding an M1A1 Abrams tank into battle. The bulk of the game consists of you tromping around on foot in first- or third-person mode, and those missions are a great deal of fun. Firefights are intense, chaotic, and often confusing, and they capture what it must feel like to be an infantry soldier caught in a battle. In addition, the included multiplayer mode is a lot of fun, although it can lag at times.
Getting used to the controls can take awhile, and will definitely be a hurdle for folks used to the simple keystrokes of most action games. Everything is handled in a realistic manner: standing from the prone position takes a few seconds, the sight on your weapon bounces around as you move, and you can hear your soldier's labored breathing when you sprint across open ground. In fact, you can only sprint for a short distance before tiring (and slowing), which encourages players to make short advances from cover to cover--just like a real soldier. Even the gunfights are realistic: instead of the extreme close-quarters combat and bright crosshairs found in most action games, Operation Flashpoint challenges you to line up a faraway, crouching soldier in the fixed iron sights of a real-world rifle. Successful missions earn a promotion in rank for you and the men under your command; controlling your squad is simple and straightforward and involves just a few keystrokes.
On the downside, the difficulty with the complex controls is compounded a million times when you play as a tank commander, where you must issue move and fire orders to the rest of the tank crew. These missions are very frustrating, especially because you can only save once per mission. Because of that, you'll find yourself replaying the tank missions again and again and again.
Operation Flashpoint sports a decent graphics engine that is capable of rendering massive and realistic outdoor areas. These large areas really make you feel like you're part of a huge battlefield, complete with forests, scrub, and dozens of vehicles and soldiers. The price you pay is in the form of blocky player models and pixilated plants. In addition, graphical glitches, such as soldiers' heads being on backward, rear up from time to time.
Fans of quick-twitch games such as Quake III will probably be turned off by Operation Flashpoint's realistic gameplay and slower pace. Everyone else will find an exciting, engaging, intense cold war combat game. --Kilmic Robbins
- Intense action
- Decent AI
- Multiplayer is a blast
- Realistic combat
- Accurate representations of s military technology
- Vehicle-centric missions stink
- Control takes some getting used to
- Only 1 save per mission
Video game series
Operation Flashpoint (also Arma: Cold War Assault) is a series of military simulation games. The first game, Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis and its expansion Operation Flashpoint: Resistance, was developed by Bohemia Interactive Studio. The second games, comprising Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising and Operation Flashpoint: Red River, were developed by Codemasters. There are also three spiritual sequels to the original game made by Bohemia Interactive Studio; ArmA: Armed Assault, ARMA 2 and ARMA 3.
Bohemia Interactive series
Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis ()
Main article: Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis
Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis's gameplay varies significantly depending on the player's role, but the game is best described as a tactical shooter with significant vehicle elements and minor real-time tactic elements. Set in , the game takes place on two fictional and one real-life islands: the island-states of Everon and Malden, and later in the game, on the barren Russian island of Kolgujev which is the staging point for the renegade Russian forces invading Everon and Malden. It has been re-released as ArmA: Cold War Assault in
Operation Flashpoint: Red Hammer ()
Main article: Operation Flashpoint: Red Hammer
An expansion, Red Hammer, which was developed by Codemasters, depicts the same conflict as Cold War Crisis, but places the player in the role of a Russian soldier, Dmitriy Lukin, rather than an American soldier.
Operation Flashpoint: Resistance ()
Main article: Operation Flashpoint: Resistance
Resistance, an expansion, included updated graphics, sounds, and multiplayer mechanics. The storyline takes place three years before the events of the original game storyline. The player takes on the role of an ex-Special Operations soldier, Victor Troska, who has returned to his homeland of Nogova after years in exile serving with British Special Forces. During the first introductory mission to the campaign, the island is invaded by the Soviet Union after some members of the socialist party betray the country and invite Soviet forces to overthrow the government. Troska becomes the leader of a resistance movement against the Soviet Army.
Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising ()
Main article: Operation Flashpoint: Dragon Rising
Dragon Rising takes place on a fictional island named Skira, in May After the global economic crisis causes mass unemployment and political destabilization in China, the PLA seize control of Skira and the vast, newly discovered reservoir of oil there, from the Russian Federation. Peace talks prove useless as both combatants lay claim to Skira due to previous ownership of it. The situation deteriorates quickly and China begins to fortify its northern provinces in anticipation of armed conflict with Russia. Russia, already countering the PLA on the Chinese mainland, calls to the United States of America to retake Skira from the Chinese. Bound by treaty arrangements made after the end of the Cold War, America agrees and the two biggest armies in the world begin to clash on the island. Dragon Rising was released for both PC and consoles, with the PC version including map editors and larger multiplayer games.
Operation Flashpoint: Red River ()
Main article: Operation Flashpoint: Red River
Operation Flashpoint: Red River was released in as a sequel to 's Dragon Rising. The game's plot concerns a fictional conflict in Tajikistan. The game follows a platoon of Marines, with the player controlling Kirby, Bravo fireteam leader.
Released: Jun 22,
The world famous Operation Flashpoint (OFP) series of games began with Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis in , produced by BI and published by Codemasters. Codemasters then produced and published an add-on campaign for the original title called Red Hammer. Then in , BI produced another version of the game (as an expansion pack) called Operation Flashpoint: Resistance. Later, a "Game of the Year" (GOTY) edition was published by Codemasters, which included the two BIS games, plus the Red Hammer campaign.
Operation Flashpoint was later renamed to Arma: Cold War Assault. See Operation Flashpoint: The Name Game for more details. However, most, if not all pages on this wiki will not use the new name.
Story & Content
The story is set in on a group of three islands - Kolgujev, Malden and Everon. The Soviet Union is in turmoil after Mikhail Gorbachev is designated General Secretary of the Communist Party. Not everyone is willing to accept his leadership, including General Ivan Vasilii Guba, leader of a well-equipped army based on Kolgujev. Guba attacks nearby Everon, an independant republic, sparking an international flashpoint. The NATO base on Malden is alerted and the plot progresses from there.
The player begins in the role of Private David Armstrong, fresh from training on Malden and under the supervision of his commanding officer Sergeant Arnold Berghoff. As the missions progress, depending on the player's performance, Armstrong is promoted and can command a squad of his own.
There are other characters which the player controls at various points through the story:
- Robert Hammer, a novice tank driver
- Sam Nichols, a helicopter pilot
- James Gastovski, a retired special forces operative who is persuaded to join the conflict and settle an old score
Cold War Crisis includes 41 missions contained in a file called pbo within the OperationFlashpoint\Campaigns directory.
- Stealth, tactics or all-out assault - Deliver liberation in Campaign, Single Mission or Multiplay modes
- Take command of a squad - or just cover yor own back. Stay alive and be victorious
- Over 30 vehicles to drive or fly - From AH1 Cobra Helicopter to M1A1 Abrams tank, each visually accurate to its original spec
- Create your own strategic challenges - for solo and multiplay with the easy-to-se Mission Editor - limited only by your imagination
- Create your own addons - Create your own content such as, weapons, vehicles and missions
This category has the following 12 subcategories, out of 12 total.
Pages in category "Operation Flashpoint"
The following 19 pages are in this category, out of 19 total.
Flash pint operation
Operation Flashpoint: The Name Game
Operation Flashpoint is the name of the original release of Arma: Cold War Assault. It is also the name of Operation Flashpoint: Elite, the XBox version of Operation Flashpoint.
Bohemia Interactive and Codemasters
Bohemia Interactive was contacted by Codemasters after seeing their demo of Operation Flashpoint reaching the million downloads and both agreed to work together; Codemasters would publish Operation Flashpoint. Doing so, Codemasters would hold the rights to the "Operation Flashpoint" name, while Bohemia Interactive would keep rights to their engine, assets and narrative.
Bohemia Interactive and Codemasters parted ways after Bohemia encountered issues in porting Operation Flashpoint on the XBox, and delays in a very ambitious Game 2 project. Those delays and issues increased Codemasters' pressure on Bohemia to create and release a sequel to Operation Flashpoint and in order to leave these restrictions, Bohemia Interactive started a new franchise with the game called ArmA: Armed Assault (ArmA: Combat Operations in the USA) and terminated Codemasters' partnership circa
Usage by Codemasters
|Operation Flashpoint release|
|Operation Flashpoint: Red Hammer release (dev. by Codemasters)|
|Operation Flashpoint: Resistance release|
|Operation Flashpoint: Elite release|
|ca.||Bohemia Interactive/Codemasters split-up|
|Armed Assault release|
|Clive Lindop is presented as "a veteran of the original OFP team"|
|Bohemia Interactive Press Release|
|Arma 2 release|
|Codemasters' Dragon Rising release|
|ca.||Codemasters' "Operation Arrowhead" cease and desist letter|
|Arma 2: Operation Arrowhead release|
|Codemasters' Red River release|
|"Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis" becomes "Arma: Cold War Assault"|
|Dragon Rising and Red River studio is closed down by Codemasters|
|Arma 3 release|
Codemasters does own the rights to "Operation Flashpoint" but there is an exclusivity clause stating a sequel can only be done by Bohemia Interactive.
Codemasters, wanting to use the good aura of the license, decided to create a new game (technically not a sequel) with the same name and announced Dragon Rising in , revealing it in at the E3 convention.
According to Eurogamer, Clive Lindop was introduced to them as a "veteran of the Operation Flashpoint team" before being rebuked by Bohemia Interactive and corrected.
Bohemia Interactive Press Release
On , a press release was published by Marek Španěl, CEO of Bohemia Interactive, to clarify the situation and put an end to Codemasters' voluntarily ambiguous statements - the praised, GOTY game is Operation Flashpoint, and Dragon Rising is -not- its sequel.
Codemasters sent a cease and desist letter to Bohemia Interactive before Arma 2: Operation Arrowhead's release, as they felt the expansion/standalone name was too close to "Operation Flashpoint". Bohemia Interactive did not comply and released the game with this name on
Guildford Studio Closure
On , Codemasters is closing the studio responsible for Dragon Rising and Red River and announces it will be focusing on racing games from now on.
Notes and References
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